Its recorded in Acts 1:6-8, just before the master's ascension to heaven, “Lord, wilt thou at this time restore again the kingdom to Israel?” The master responded, “It is not for you to know the times or the seasons, which the Father hath put in his own power.” From this we learn that the father had indeed:-
1. appointed a set time when the kingdom would be restored to Israel, but
2. the times and seasons relating to this was not for them to know, and
3. that the times and seasons were in the power of the father.
By this we understand that the father up until then was retaining the power and authority to accomplish the establishment of the Kingdom, and that this would happen after certain times and seasons had elapsed. Psa 102:13 refers to this as “the set time to favour Zion”.
Times and seasons describe periods of time, like months, seasons, and years. The master did not reveal the duration of these periods to the disciples before he ascended to heaven: but the father had previously revealed certain times to Daniel the prophet, which did relate to the return of the master to this earth and the kingdom that he will establish thereon.
Before we look at these, we'd like to establish a few related important scriptural principles. For instance 2Peter3:8 records “beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.” So we see that scripture can refer to days as years, to make the context of say a parable more realistic.
An example of this, when days become years, is found in Numbers 14:33-34. There it is recorded that twelve spies searched the land of Canaan for forty days, and because of their evil report, Israel lost faith in their ability to take the land, even though the father promised to be with them, and were as a consequence punished with 40 years of wandering in the wilderness. And so they received 40 years punishment because of 40 days of faithless spying in the land.
Another example is found in Ezekiel 4:1-6. So Ezekiel was commanded to lie on his left side for 390 days, and on his right side for 40 days, a total of 430 days. Each day he lay on his side represented a year of the iniquity that the father would bring upon Judah and Israel.
In the main we believe time periods of less than a year, for example days, months and hours, are figurative for larger time periods, as we've seen on the basis of a day for a year principle, but where years themselves are referred they are to be taken literally. For example Rev 20:4 refers to the 1000 year reign of Christ upon the earth, Jer 25:11 refers to the 70 year captivity of Judah in Babylon, whilst Isaiah 23:15 refers to 70 year servitude of Tyre. According to Gen 15:13, Abraham’s seed was to be afflicted for 400 years. There are many more..as I'm sure your possibly aware.
We learn from Gen 1:14 that lights amongst other things, were set to divide the day from the night; and for them to be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years, [READ]. And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years.